Gallstones (biliary calculi) are small pebble-like substances that form in the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped sac that
lies below the liver. Bile is made in the liver, and stored in the gallbladder until the body needs it. The presence of fatty foods triggers
the gallbladder to squeeze bile into the small intestine. Bile helps with digestion and breaks up dietary fat. It contains water,
cholesterol, fats, bile salts, proteins, and bilirubin (a waste product). If bile contains too much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin,
it can harden into gallstones. Gallstones can block the normal flow of bile if they move from the gallbladder and lodge in any of the ducts
that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine.
A hernia may occur whenever the muscles of the abdomen or your tummy develop a weak spot or a tear. Muscles normally hold the organs and surrounding tissues in place.
An organ a such an intestine can push the abdominal lining through the weak spot and therefore form a balloon or a sac. Think of holding
a balloon and squeezing it. It pops through your fingers. The sac looks like a bulge under the skin when the patient is standing and can
be the size of a marble. They can be made worse by a chronic cough, heavy lifting or constipation. It causes pain and becomes worse over
Colectomy is surgery to remove part of the colon that is diseased. This can be performed ‘laparoscopically’ (keyhole surgery)or as an ‘open
procedure’ The need for a Colectomy may be from cancer of the colon, inflammatory bowel disease such as Chron’s and ulcerative colitis,
blocked bowel, a hole or tear in the bowel wall, repeated diverticulitis, fistula, precancerous polyps.
GORD is caused by improper mechanical function of the Lower Oesophageal Sphincter (LOS). The LOS is a ring of muscle that surrounds the
junction of the oesophagus and the stomach and acts as a valve. When functioning properly, this valve opens when swallowing to allow passage
of food from the oesophagus into the stomach. The valve then closes and acts as a barrier to keep stomach contents from refluxing into the
oesophagus. In people with GORD, the LOS does not properly close resulting in back-flow of gastric contents. It is the back-flow of gastric
contents that cause the symptoms of GORD.
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